CHILLY

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PEST MANAGEMENT
  • Chillies are affected by 16 insects and mites. There are 6 major pests and 10 minor pests. The following act as vectors of diseases
  • Myzus persicae Sulz
  • Aphis gossypii Glov.
  • Bemisia tabaci Gen.

Pests at different stages

Stage

Common Name

Scientific Name

Nursery

Cutworm

Agrotis ipsilon Hubn.

Nursery - till harvest

Chilli thrips

Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

Vegetative

Green peach aphid

Myzus persicae Sulz

Vegetative

Cotton aphid

Aphis gossypii Glov.

Vegetative

Brinjal stemborers

Euzophera perticella Ragonot

Vegetative

Termite

Odonototermes obesus (Rambur)

Vegetative

Cowbug

Tricentrus bicolor Dist.

Vegetative

Coconut scale

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret

Vegetative

Pepper scale

Lepidosaphes piperis

Vegetative, reproductive

Tobacco cutworm

Spodoptera litura F.

Vegetative, reproductive

Gram caterpillar

Helicoverpa armigera
(Hubner)

Vegetative, reproductive

White fly

Bemisia tabaci Gen.
Aleyrodicus dispersus Rus.

Vegetative, reproductive

Lucerne caterpillar

Spodoptera exigua Hubner

Vegetative, reproductive

Mealy bug

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)

Vegetative, maturity

Muranai mite

Polyphagotarsonemus latus

Brinjal stem borer

Euzophera perticella Ragonot

Symptoms and damage

  • The larva bores into stem in the leaf axil closing the hole with excreta and frass.
  • Stunted growth and lessened fruiting capacity.
  • Plants wither and wilt.

Biology

  • The moth is small and has greyish brown forewings with transverse lines in the middle and white hind wings.
  • Elongate flat eggs are laid on tender leaves, petioles or branches. Incubation is 3 to 10 days.
  • The larvae are yellowish - white with orange brown head and the larval period lasts for 26 to 58 days.
  • Pupation occurs within thin silken cocoon and the pupal period is 9 to 16 days.
  • 3-4 generations occur in a year.

Alternate hosts

  • Brinjal, potato, tomato, Solanum aviculare.

Cotton aphid

Aphis gossypii Glov.

  • This occurs on a wide variety of hosts and is a vector of mosaic disease.

Symptoms and damage

  • Found in large numbers on the underside of tender leaves and shoots sucking the sap from all tissues.
  • Infested leaves curl and dry up.
  • Sooty mould occurs due to honey dew excretion.

 

Biology

  • Develops parthenogenetically, alate and apterous forms occur.
  • The nymphal period lasts for 7-9 days.
  • About 8-22 nymphs per day are given birth by an aphid.

Alternate hosts

  • Cotton, brinjal, bhendi, guava, amaranthus, mulberry, marigold, agave and a number of weeds.

Natural enemies

  • A number of Cocinellids like
  • Menochilus sexmaculatus,
  • Coccinella septumpunctata,
  • Scymus sp,
  • Colesphora bisellata,
  • Nephus regularis prey upon this aphid.

The other predaceous insects include

  • Chrysopa sp.,
  • Hemerobius sp,
  • Sysphus confracter, birds like
  • Phylloscopus trestis,
  • Cisticola cixistans.

Management

  • Spray any one of the insecticide thrice at fortnightly intervals, per hectare.
  • Acephate 75 EC 650 g
  • Methyldemeton 25 EC 500 ml
  • Phosalone 35 EC 1250 ml

Cow Bug

Tricentrus bicolor Dist.

Symptom and damage

  • Both nymphs and adults suck the plant sap and exude honeydew which attracts the black ant Camponotus compressus. The damage caused is seldom severe resulting in drying of leaves/plant.

Biology

  • Adults are black and with prominent sub triangular pronotum overlapping the entire prothorax.
  • The females cut tender branches, midrib of leaves, petioles, buds or lamina and lay eggs therein.
  • Egg period varies from 8 to 13 days.
  • The nymphal period is 33 to 55 days.

Alternate hosts

  • Bhendi, cereals, cotton, brinjal, potato, tomato, various fruit trees and wild grasses.

Cutworm

Agrotis ipsilon Hubf.

Symptom and damage

  • It causes severe damage to the seedlings of chilli.
  • The nocturnal larvae cut the seedlings at ground level and eat only tender leaves resulting in a heap of curled cut leaves near the plant.

Biology

  • The adult moth is medium sized, stout, dark greenish brown with reddish tinges, dull brownish forewings with numerous wavy lines and spots and hyaline hindwings with dark terminal fringe.
  • Eggs are laid in cluster on ventral leaf surface or moist soil.
  • The incubation period is 2 to 13 days
  • The fully grown larva is smooth, stout, cylindrical with dark stripes.
  • It pupates in soil in an earthen cocoon.
  • The larval and pupal stage lasts for 10 to 30 days and the total life cycle varies from 30 to 68 days.

Alternate hosts

  • Potato, barley, oats, cabbage, peas, beetroot, chickpea, tobacco, mustard, bhendi, brinjal etc.

Natural enemies

  • Microgaster sp,
  • Micropilitis dimilis and
  • Bracon kitchener parasitize the larva while
  • Broscus punctatus and
  • Liogryllus bimaculatus are predaceous on the cutworm.

Fruit flies

Dacus dorsalis Hendal D. cucurbitae (Conq.)

  • The maggots feed on the contents of the fruits causing premature dropping of fruits and making them unfit for consumption.
  • The other defoliators present are of minor importance which includes
    • Cocoecia epicyrta Meyr
    • Mythimna loreyi Dup.
    • Archips micaceanas Wik.
    • Monolepta signata Olv.

Alternate hosts

  • Cowpea, greengram, horse gram, pillipe sara, mulberry, sesamum, marigold, jute, cotton, potato, tomato, brinjal, cucurbit, tea, cluster beans, scord beasn, lab lab, kidney bean, thorn-apple, dahlia, zinnia, datura, Amaranthus Solanum nigrum.

Chilli muranai mite

 Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Tarsonemidae)

  • It is also referred as broad mite, yellow tea mite and tropical mite distributed throughout the tropics and in green houses in temperate region.

Symptoms

  • Mites suck the sap while remaining on the undersurface of the leaves.
  • As a result leaf margin will curl downwards giving a inverted boat shaped appearance.
  • Petiole is elongated.
  • Crinkling of leaves.
  • Stunted growth
  • Death of the plants

Biology

  • Adult mites are tiny, oval, glossy or whitish.
  • Eggs are oval in shape, elongate, transparent and shiny with 7 longitudinal rows of tubercles which are white in colour.
  • Eggs are deposited singly on the lower surface by the female which lays a maximum of 6 eggs.
  • Size ranges from 95/u in length and 68 microns in width.
  • Egg period is for 1-3 days. These are two larval instars.
  • First instar nymphal period varies from 12h - 1.5 days and the second nymphal period is of 12 hr.
  • Total nymphal period lasts for 1-2 days.
  • Pupal period lasts for a day.
  • Adult longevity varies from 3,4 - 5 days.
  • The total life cycle is completed within 6.5 - 8 days.
  • The male, female ratio is 1:2.5.

Management

  • Application of dicofol
  • @ 1500 ml/ha or wettable sulphur @ 1.25 kg/ha is effective in checking the mite.
  • Avoid application of monocr
  • otophos.

Fruit flies

Dacus dorsalis Hendal D. cucurbitae (Conq.)

  • The maggots feed on the contents of the fruits causing premature dropping of fruits and making them unfit for consumption.
  • The other defoliators present are of minor importance which includes
    • Cocoecia epicyrta Meyr
    • Mythimna loreyi Dup.
    • Archips micaceanas Wik.
    • Monolepta signata Olv.

Alternate hosts

  • Cowpea, greengram, horse gram, pillipe sara, mulberry, sesamum, marigold, jute, cotton, potato, tomato, brinjal, cucurbit, tea, cluster beans, scord beasn, lab lab, kidney bean, thorn-apple, dahlia, zinnia, datura, Amaranthus Solanum nigrum.

Gram Caterpillar

Helicoverpa armigera Hubner

  • It causes serious losses in a number of crops.

Symptom and damage

  • Early instars feed on foliage. Grown up larvae mainly bore into the fruits resulting in dropping of floral buds, and make them empty.

 

 

Biology

  • The moth has 'V' shaped speck on the light brownish forewing and a dark border on the hind wings.
  • After mating and a preoviposition period of 2-3 days, the moths lay eggs singly on buds, flower, small fruits and on young terminal.
  • The incubation period ranges from 2 to 5 days.
  • There are six larval instars, and the larval period lasts for 18 to 25 days.
  • Pupation occurs in soil and the pupal period is 10-12 days.

Alternate Hosts

  • H.armigera has been recorded as damaging 60 cultivated plant species and at least 67 other plant species. Devastations occur on cotton, sorghum, maize, ragi, oats, barley, pearlmillet, pulses, safflower, sunflower etc.

Natural enemies

  • Several species of parasitoids and predators have been reported. The potential of egg parasitoids are:
  • Trichogramma spp.,
  • Telenomus spp.,
  • Chelonus blackburni,
  • Campoletis chlorideae,
  • Eriborus spp., etc.

Predators like

  • Chrysopa spp.,
  • Menochilus sp. are often found.
  • Biological suppression by NPV is the most applied method.

Management

Monitoring

  • Pest monitoring through light traps, pheromone traps and in situ assessments by roving and fixed plot surveys has to be intensified at farm level, village level, block level, regional and State levels.

Cultural practices

  • Synchronized sowing of chillies preferably with short duration varieties in each chillies ecosystem.
  • Avoiding continuous cropping of chillies both during winter and summer seasons in the same area as well as ratooning.
  • Avoiding monocropping. Growing of less preferred crops like greengram, blackgram, soyabean, castor, sorghum etc., along with the chillies as intercrop or border crop or alternate crop to reduce the pest infestation.
  • Removal and destruction of crop residues to avoid carry over of the pest to the next season, and avoiding extended period of crop growth by continuous irrigation.
  • Optimizing the use of nitrogenous fertilizers which will not favour the multiplication of the pest.
  • Judicious water management for the crop to prevent excessive vegetative growth and larval harbourage.

Biological control

  • Application of nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) at 500 LE/ha in evening hours at 7th and 12th week after sowing.
  • Conservation and augmentation of natural predators and parasites for effective control of the pest.
  • Inundative release of egg parasite, Trichogramma spp., at 6.25 cc/ha at 15 days interval 3 times from 45 DAS egg-larval parasite, Chelonus blackbumii and the predator Chrysoperla. 1,00,000/ha at 6th, 13th and 14th week after sowing.
  • ULV spray of NPV at 450 LE/ha 10% cotton seed kernel extract, 10% crude sugar, 0.1% each of Tinopal and Teepol for effective control of Helicoverpa.

Note : Dicofol, Endosulfan, Methyl demeton, Monocrotophos and Phosalone are comparatively safer to Chrysoperla larva recording low egg mortality.

Chemical control

  • Discouraging the indiscriminate use of insecticides, particularly synthetic pyrethroids and DDT.
  • Use of proper insecticides which are comparatively safer to natural enemies such as Endosulfan, Phosalone, etc., at the correct dosage and alternating different groups of insecticides for each round of spray.
  • Avoiding combination of insecticides as tank mix.
  • Adopting proper delivery system using spraying equipments like hand compression sprayer, knapsack sprayer and mist blower to ensure proper coverage with required quantity of spray fluid and avoiding ULV applications or Akela spray applications.
  • Proper mixing and preparation of spray fluid for each filling of spray fluid tank.
  • Spray any one of the insecticides when the damage is severe.
    • B.t. product 500 g/lit.
    • Carbaryl 50 WP 1250 g/lit.
    • Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/lit.
    • Quinalphos 20 EC 1250 ml/lit.

Monitoring Kit for detection of resistance to insecticides in H. armigera.

  • This kit helps to find out the resistance level in various populations of H. armigera to various insecticides. The resistance level ranged from 8-24, 68-84 and 30-54 per cent for endosulfan, fenvalerate and cypermethrin respectively.

Green Peach Aphid

Myzus persicae Sulz.

  • This is a polyphagous pest causing heavy losses to a variety of crops and is also a important vector of many plant virus diseases.
  • This insect occurs with other species of insects like scales, aphids, whiteflies, mealy bugs, thrips and mites with similar feeding habits.
  • High winds and heavy rains cause reduction in aphid population.
  • Cool conditions either through local variations in weather or increasing elevation and latitude decreases the peak density.
  • Temperature of 29oC and 27 percent relative humidity favour the aphid survival.

Symptom and damage

  • Aphids are seen on both the surfaces of leaves, apical shoots, flower buds, flowers and young fruits.
  • Plants turn pale and are sickly in appearance.
  • When the intensity is high, leaves curl and droop down.
  • Upon heavy infestation, stunted growth occurs and sooty mould develops due to honey dew secretion.

Biology

  • Apterous and alate forms occur.
  • Parthenogenetic reproduction is very common. Fecundity 38-43 nymphs
  • The nymphs pass through four instars and total development period varies from 139 to 150 h.
  • The adult longevity is 16 days.

Alternate Hosts

  • Brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, potato, sugarbeet, tobacco, papaya, peach, tomato, cucurbits, amaranthus, spinach and lettuce.

Natural enemies

Seven species of aphelinids have been recorded on this aphid

  • Aphelinus jucundus,
  • A. marlatti,
  • A. semiflavus,
  • A. loxopteraphidis,
  • A. asychis,
  • A. mali and
  • A. flavipes; and

 

The predators include

  • Coccinella tranquersoguttata richardsoni,
  • Coleomezilla maculata,
  • Hippodamia convergens.
  • The pathogens include
  • Neozygites fresenii,
  • Acrostalagmus aphidium,
  • Beauveria bassiana,
  • Zoopthora aphidis,
  • Verticillium lecanii etc.

Line tolerant to Aphid

LEC-28, LEC-30, LEC-34, 'Kalyanpur Red', x 1068

Management

  • Spray any one of these insecticide thrice at fortnightly intervals, per hectare.
  • Acephate 75 EC 650 g Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml Phosalone 35 EC 1250 ml

Indigo/lucerne Caterpillar

Spodoptera exigua Hubner

Symptoms and damage

  • Larvae cause defoliation and bore into the fruits.

Biology

  • Adults are dark brown stout moths.
  • Eggs are pearly white in colour, with radiating lines. Egg period lasts for 2 days.
  • Caterpillars are velvetty black in colour with black longitudinal lines, and a yellowish pink lateral line.
  • The larval period lasts for 9 days and the pupal day period 5 days.
  • Adult longevity is 2 days.

Alternate hosts

  • Cotton, groundnut, jute, lucerne, rice, tobacco, tomato, onion, garlic and other vegetables.

Natural enemies

  • Larval parasites
  • Euplectrus gopimohni and
  • Peripae orbata help in keeping the pest population under check.
  • The bug
  • Canthecona furcellata,
  • Ammophila sp. and some carabid beetles prey upon caterpillars.

Management

  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml, per hectare.

Mealy Bug

Ferrisia virgata
Scale (Aspidiotus destructor)
Signoret (Diaspididae : Hemiptera)
Lepidosaphes piperis (Diaspididae : Hemiptera)

  • These pests occur throughout the year but prefer dry weather and heavy infestation often occurs following a period of prolonged drought.

Symptom and damage

  • The pest remains clustered upon terminal shoots, leaves, berries and sucks the sap.
  • Yellowing, withering, drying of plants and shedding of berries occur.
  • Presence of ants and sooly mould occur.
  • Drying of leaves

Biology

  • The female bug is apterous with two long prominent waxy filaments.
  • The female lays 100 to 200 eggs in groups which lie under its body.
  • The incubation period is about 2 to 3 hours.
  • Female and male nymphs moult three and four times respectively and the development varies from 26 to 57 days.
  • The adult longevity is 36 to 53 days for the females and that of male is 1 to 3 days.

Alternate hosts

  • More than 100 plants have been recorded as alternate hosts viz., cashew, pineapple, tomato, cassava, mulberry, guava, rose, sugarcane etc.

Natural enemies

  • Parasitoid and predator complex consists of around 54 insect species, which includes
  • Encyrtids, parasitoids Acerophagus aegyptiacus,
  • Blepyrus insularis cecidomyiids
  • Cecidomyia coccidarum,
  • Diadiplosis indica,

Predators

  • Chrysopa scelestes,
  • C. orestes,
  • Coccinellids like
  • Cryptolaemus montrouzieri,
  • Scymnus sp,
  • lygaeids Geocoris tricolor,
  • lycanids Gerydus boisduvali, Spalgius epius etc.

Termite

Odontotermes obesus (Rambur)

  • Roots of chilli plants are occasionally damaged by termites in Sathur area of Virudhunagar district in Tamil Nadu, resulting in drying of plants.

Biology

  • Termites are social insects living together in organised communities composed of mature males and soldiers.
  • The queen and king are the primary reproductives.
  • The life span of the queen varies from 5 to 15 years and lays 2000-2200 eggs per day.
  • The incubation period varies between 30 to 90 days. Nymphs moult 8 to 9 times and are fully grown in 6-2 months.
  • The workers are solely responsible for damaging plants.

Alternate hosts

  • Wheat, sugarcane, guava, cotton, tea, ber, coconut, jack, mulberry etc.

Natural enemies

  • The natural enemy array is vast and includes predators like
    • Rhagodes sp,
    • Amblyseius sp,
    • Scetigera sp,
    • Pantala flavescens,
    • Diacamma rugosum
    • Fungal pathogens like:
    • Beaveria brongriartii,
    • Penicillium sp,
    • Fusarium sp etc.

Management

  • Apply chlorpyriphos 20 TC @ 1:19 ratio at the base of the plants and also drench the soil and termite mounds.

Chillies thrips

Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

  • This was first recorded on castor and chillies in Coimbatore in 1916.
  • It causes severe damage in the upland tracts of Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu.
  • The extent of yield loss varies from 25-50 percent.

Symptom and damage

  • Nymphs and adults lacerate the leaf tissue and imbibe the oozing sap.
  • Infested leaves develop crinkles and curl upwards.
  • Severely infested leaves are bronze coloured.
  • If affected at early stage, stunted growth, arrested flower production and pod setting occur.
  • Leaf tip will be poured and hence the name 'rate tail' symptom.

Life Cycle

  • Adults lay minute dirty white eggs under the leaf tissues. The fecundity rate is 52-58. Two-four eggs are laid per day. The incubation period is 4-7 days.
  • The larval period lasts for 5-10 days, pre-pupal period for 1-2 days and pupal period for 2-3 days.
  • The total life cycle is completed within a period of 12-22 days.
  • As many 25 overlapping generations occur in a year.

Alternate Hosts

  • Tea, Acacia, Prosopis, castor, cotton, mango, onion, groundnut, chekkurmanis, pomegranate, pulses, brinjal, grape vine, citrus sp and numerous weeds.

Natural Enemies

  • Predaceous thrips, Scolothrips indicus and Franklinothrips megalops have been recorded on S. dorsalis.
  • Following are the resistance sources to thrips and aphid

Line tolerant to thrips

'Caleapin Red', 'Chamtkar', 'NP46A', x 1068, x 743, x 1047, 'BG-4', x 226, x 230, x 233.

 

LEC-1 'Kalyanpur Red', x 1068, x 204, 'Goli Kalynapur', -309-1-1-15, 300-1-5-1, S-118 (Punjab Lal), 635, 565.

Management

  • Spray any one of these insecticides thrice at fortnightly intervals, per hectare.
  • Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml
  • Methyldemeton 25 EC 500 ml
  • Formothion 50 EC 500 ml
  • Quinalphos 1.5 D 20 kg

Tobacco Cutworm

Spodoptera litura F.

  • This is a polyphagous pest attacking a number of crops.

Symptom and damage

  • Neonate larvae are gregarious. They scrape out the green matter in the leaf leaving the epidermis alone giving a skeletonized appearance.
  • The second and third instar larvae feed by making small holes while the late instars feed voraciously on the entire lamina, petiole.
  • They also feed on floral parts and bore into fruits.

Biology

  • The adult moth is stout brown coloured, with wavy white markings on the forewings and a brown patch along the margin of the white hind wings.
  • Eggs are laid on leaves in masses of 230-750 and covered with brown hairs.
  • Eggs hatch in 4-5 days.
  • Larval period lasts for 2-3 weeks.
  • It pupates inside the soil in wet sandy loam upto a depth of 4 cm.
  • Pupal period is 2 weeks. The total life cycle is completed in 30-40 days.

Alternate Hosts

  • Hundred and twelve cultivated crop plants have been recorded as hosts. Tobacco, castor, cotton, pulses, colecrops, amaranthus are some of them.

Natural enemies

The natural enemy complex include: Nuclear polyhedral virus

  • Bacillus thuringiensis,
  • Streptococcus sp.,
  • Beauveria bassiana,
  • Steinerma feltiae,

Parasitoids like

  • Telenomus remus,
  • Trichogramma australicum,
  • Chelonus spp.
  • Predatory spiders like:
  • Thomisus lobosus,
  • Olioes punctifer,
  • Oxyopes spp.

Management

  • Use of light trap to monitor and kill the attracted adult moths.
  • Set up sex pheromone trap Pherodin S.L. at 12/ha to monitor activity of the pest and to synchronise pesticide application, if need be, at the maximum activity stage.
  • Growing castor along border and irrigation bunds, as trap crop.
  • Removal and destruction of egg masses in castor and cotton crops.
  • Removal and destruction of early stage larvae found in clusters which can be located easily even from a distance.
  • Collection and destruction of shred materials.
  • Hand picking and destruction of grown up caterpillars.
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides per ha using, a high volume sprayer covering foliage and soil surface.
  • Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.0/lit
  • Dichlorvos 76 WSC 1.0/lit
  • Phenthoate 50 EC 2.0/lit and
  • Fenitrothion 50 EC 1.25/lit and Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 625 ml respectively.
  • Spraying Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus at 250 larval equivalent per ha.
  • Spraying of insecticide should be done either in the early morning or in the evening and virus in the evening.
  • Use of poison bait pellets prepared with rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg, Carbaryl 50% WP 1.25 kg and Water 7.5 litres.
  • This bait can be spread in the fields in the evening hours so that the caterpillars coming out of the soil feed and get killed.

White Grubs

Holotrichia consanguinea Blan. H. insularis Ben.

Anomala bengalensis Blan

Symptom and damage

  • The grubs feed on the root system. The attacked plants die and they can be easily pulled out. Roots will be either partially or completely damaged
  • Drying of plants

Biology

  • The gravid females lay eggs on moist sandy soils (H.consanguinea) while H.insularis prefers loose sandy soils in organic matter.
  • One female lays 30 eggs in an average with a maximum of 67 eggs. The incubation period ranges from 8-10 days.
  • Fully grown larva is 'C' shaped and the larval period varies from 8-10 weeks.
  • Pupa is exarate, creamy white when freshly formed gradually changes to brown colour. It pupates in an earthen cell about 30-150 cm below the soil surface. Pupal period lasts for 12 to 16 days.
  • The total life cycle is completed within 77-112 days.

Alternate hosts

  • Castor, groundnut, sugarcane, pearlmillet and guinea grass are preferred by the grubs while mango, ber, neems, fig, drumstick, pomegranate are attacked by the adults.

Natural enemies

  • The parasites
  • Campsomeris collaris,
  • Scolio aureipennis on grubs
  • Carabid beetle predators, Anthia sexguttata on adult and
  • Pheropsophus sobrinus on grubs are reported.
  • The common crow, mynah and sparrow feed on larvae, pupae and adults when they are exposed at the time of ploughing.
  • The green muscardine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and the white muscardine fungus Beauveria bassiana are pathogenic to adults.
  • The milky disease bacterium, Bacillus popillae occurs on the grubs.

Whitefly

Bemisia tabaci Gen.; Aleyrodicus dispersus Rus.

  • Whiteflies are polyphagous pests and occur as an occasional pest of chillies.

Symptom and damage

  • The young ones and adults suck the sap while remaining on the ventral leaf surface.
  • Due to continuous feeding chlorotic spots appear which later coalesce, leaves become brittle and drop prematurely.
  • Honey dew excretion results in sooty mould development.
  • In severe cases, leaf fall may occur.

Biology

  • Whiteflies are moth-like tiny bodied insects, with transparent waxy wings dusted with milky white powder.
  • The female lays 200-300 eggs. In case of the spiraling whitefly A. dispersus, the eggs are laid in spiral manner. Incubation period ranges from 3 to 5 days.
  • Four nymphal instars are present, the IV instar is the Puparium.
  • The nymphal period lasts for 9 to 14 days and the pupal period 2-8 days.
  • The life cycle is completed within 11-21 days.
  • About 12-15 overlapping generations are completed within a year.

Alternate Host

  • It breeds and feeds on over 300 cultivated and non-cultivated hosts. The important among them are cotton, brinjal, tobacco, sunflower, bhendi, tapioca etc.

Natural enemies

  • Several species of aphelinid parasites play a major role in suppressing the population build up; the important ones are
  • Eretmocerus mundus and
  • Encarsia sp.
  • Among the predators the
  • phytoseid mite, Amblyseius sp,
  • lacewing bug Chrysoperla spp, and the
  • coccinellids Brumus sp,
  • Scymnus sp are the important ones.

Management

  • Avoid the alternate, cultivated host crops of white fly in the vicinity of chillies crop.
  • Growing chillies only once a year either in winter or summer season in any chillies tract.
  • Adopting crop rotation with non-preferred hosts of white fly such as Sorghum, Ragi, Maize to check pest build up.
  • Removal and destruction of alternate weed hosts like Abutilon indicum, Chrozophore rottlari, Solanum nigrum and Hibiscus ficulensus from the fields and neighbouring areas and maintaining field sanitations.
  • Timely sowing with recommended spacing, preferably wider spacing.
  • Judicious application of recommended dose of fertilizers, particularly nitrogenous fertilizes and irrigation management is essential to arrest excessive vegetative growth and pest buildup. Late sowing may be avoided and crop growth should not be extended beyond its normal duration.
  • Field sanitation may be given proper attention.
  • Cultivation of most preferred alternate host crops like brinjal, bhendi, tomato, tobacco and sunflower may be avoided. In case their cultivation is unavoidable, plant protection measures should be extended to these crops also.
  • Monitoring the activities of the adult white flies by setting up yellow pan traps and sticky traps at 1 foot height and also in situ counts.
  • Collection and removal of white fly infested leaves from the plants and those, which were shed due to attack of the pest and destroying them.
  • Cypermethrin, Fenvalerte and Deltamethrin cause resurgence of white flies.

Chemical control

  • If 5 - 10 white flies / leaf (ETL) are observed, application of

Early stage

  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml or
  • Phosphamidon 85 WSC 300 ml/ha
  • (500 lit. of spray fluid/ha) and spraying

Mid and late

  • Phosalone 35 EC at 2.5 lit. or
  • Quinalphos 25 EC at 2 lit.
  • (1000 lit. spray liquid/ha),
  • Ethion 50 EC 1.0 lit./ha
  • Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.25 lit./ha
  • Triazophos 25 EC 2.0 lit./ha
  • Acephate 75 SP 1.30 kg/ha
  • Plant products namely Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5% (50 kg) and Neem oil at 5 ml/ lit. or fish oil rosin soap 25 kg at 1 kg in 40 lit of water may be sprayed individually or in combination with the recommended dose of insecticide (at 2 ml/ lit. of water) and is found effective when sprayed in high volume sprayer or spray 5% extract of Notchi leaves or Catharanthus rosea extract.

 

 
 

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