TURMERIC

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CROP ESTABLISHMENT

Land Preparation

  • The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoons.
  • The land is ploughed five to seven times thoroughly to a depth of 22-25 cm. followed by two to three plankings in order to bring to a fine tilth.
  • Weeds, stubbles, roots etc. are removed.
  • Well rotten FYM or compost at 10 tonnes/ha should be mixed in the soil during land preparation.
  • Immediately after the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, beds of 1 to 1.5 m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with a spacing of 40 to 50 cm between beds.
  • Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows at 45 to 50 cm apart to avoid water stagnation during rainy season.
  • It is highly desirable to prepare the land in April-May, so that the planting may be completed by May-June.

Planting

  • Well developed healthy and disease free and scale insect free rhizomes should be selected during harvest for seed and stored in underground pits.
  • When the seeds start sprouting, it should be taken out from the pits for planting.
  • Care should be taken to protect the sprouting buds from mechanical injury.
  • The planting starts with commencement of monsoon.
  • In Tamil Nadu, planting may be done during May - June or July - August.
  • Whole or split mother rhizomes weighing 35 to 44 g are used for planting.
  • A seed rate of 2500 kg of rhizomes/ha is optimum.
  • Rhizomes are treated with mancozeb (3 g/lit.) and malathion (1ml/lit) for 30 minutes before planting.
  • Two systems of planting viz., flat beds, and ridges and furrows methods are adopted.
  • Small pits are made with a hand hoe in the beds in rows with a spacing of 25 x 30 cm and covered with soil or dry powdered cattle manure.
  • The optimum spacing in furrows and ridges is about 45 to 60 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants.          
  • The optimum period of planting under Bhavanisagar conditions has been found as first week of June for higher yield. The crop planted from May 15th to June 15th was less susceptible to thrips.
  • The broad ridge system of planting (50 cm x 15 cm) has been found to be the best (34 t/ha) as against common ridge and furrow (28 t/ha) and flat bed (24 t/ha) systems.

Inter cropping/companion cropping

  • Turmeric is a long duration crop (9 months) in which a short duration crop can be cultivated as an inter crop to get a supplementary income before the main crop is harvested.
  • Intercropping with country onion and mulching appreciably increased the fresh rhizome yield.
  • Turmeric grown with K2 chillies as a border crop gave a maximum yield of 29.65 t/ha with additional chilli yield of 2938 kg/ha.
  • Turmeric comes up well under partial shaded conditions, but thick shade affects the yield adversely.
  • It is recommended as an intercrop in coconut and areca nut gardens.
  • It can also be mixed with redgram, sunnhemp, chillies, colocasia, onion, brinjal and cereals like maize and ragi.
  • High returns are realised from turmeric and maize or turmeric and chillies or turmeric and castor.

Rotations

  • In wet lands, turmeric is rotated with rice, sugarcane, banana, etc. once in 3 or 4 years.
  • In garden lands, it is grown in rotation with sugarcane, chillies, onion, garlic, elephant's foot yam, vegetables, pulses, wheat, ragi and maize.
  • Often, castor and pigeon peas are planted on borders and on irrigation channels to provide shade.

Mulching

  • Mulching of turmeric with dry leaves was reported to be beneficial.
  • Sugrcane trash mulch was found useful in increasing the germination rate, plant height as well as rhizome yield of turmeric.
  • Mulching with daincha (Sesbania aculeata) leaves and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) leaves was found useful in turmeric.
  • Mulching treatments hasten germination by a week and allow less number of weeds thereby resulting in higher rhizome yield than non-mulched treatments.
  • Mulching with green leaves at the rate of 12-15 t/ha immediately after planting and again after 50 days is recommended.

Nutrient Management

Role of Nutrients in The Plant Growth

  • Sixteen nutrient elements are recognised as being essential to all plants for their normal growth and development.

Essential nutrient elements and their source

Essential elements used in relatively large amounts

Essential elements used in relatively small amounts

Mostly from air and water

From soils

Macronutrients

Secondary nutrients

Micronutrients

Carbon

Nitrogen

Calcium

Iron

Hydrogen

Phosphorus

Magnesium

Manganese

Oxygen

Potassium

Sulphur

Boron

 

 

 

Molybdenum

 

 

 

Copper

 

 

 

Zinc

 

 

 

Cobalt

  • The nutrients are called macro, secondary and micronutrients based only on the quantity required by the plant for its normal growth and not based on their essentiality.
  • The plant cannot complete its life cycle in the absence of even any one of these 16 elements.

Macronutrients

Nitrogen (N)

  • Important constituent of chlorophyll, protoplasm, proline and nucleic acid
  • Increases growth and development of all living tissues
  • Imparts dark green colour to plants.

Phosphorus (P)

  • A constituent of phosphatids like nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids and co-enzymes
  • Constituent of certain amino acids
  • Necessary for cell division and root development,
  • Necessary for meristematic growth, seed and fruit development and stimulates flowering.

Potassium (K)

  • An activator of enzymes involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Helps in carbohydrate translocation, synthesis of protein, stomatal opening and pH control
  • Helps to resist cold and other adverse condition and disease
  • It regulates water conditions within the plant cell and thus reduces tendency to wilt and helps in better utilization of water.
  • It counteracts the injurious effects of nitrogen in plants.

Secondary nutrients

Calcium (Ca)

  • Constituents of cell and necessary for normal mitosis
  • Maintenance of chromosome structure
  • Activator of enzymes and helps in translocation of carbohydrates
  • Acts as a detoxifying agent by neutralizing organic acids in plants.

Magnesium (Mg)

  • Key element in chlorophyll without which photosynthesis would not occur.
  • Promotes uptake and translocation of phosphorus
  • Helps in movement of sugars within plants.

Sulphur (S)

  • Constituent of sulphur - bearing amino acids
  • Helps in stabilizing protein structure
  • Aids in the synthesis of oils and formation of chlorophyll.

Micronutrients

Zinc (Zn)

  • Involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormone, indole acetic acid (IAA)
  • Plays a role in nucleic acid and protein synthesis
  • Helps in the utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen in plants

Copper (Cu)

  • Promotes formation of vitamin A in plants.
  • Components of many enzymes

Iron (Fe)

  • Necessary for the synthesis and maintenance of chlorophyll in plants
  • Essential component of many enzymes
  • Plays as essential role in nucleic acid metabolism

Manganese (Mn)

  • Acts as catalyst in several important enzymatic and physiological reactions in plants
  • Involved in the oxidation of carbohydrate to CO2 and H2O
  • Involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll

Boron (B)

  • Essential for protein synthesis.
  • Changes the activities of certain enzymes
  • Facilitates carbohydrate transport
  • Associated with the uptake of calcium and its utilisation by plants
  • Regulates potassium/calcium ratio in plants.

Molybdenum (Mo)

  • Associated with nitrogen utilisation and in nitrogen fixation
  • Constituent of nitrate reductase and nitrogenase
  • Required by rhizobia for nitrogen fixation.

Role of Organics

  • Soil organic matter serves as soil conditioner, nutrient source, substrate for microbial activity, preserver of the environment, and major determinant for sustaining or increasing agricultural productivity.
  • Turmeric responds to heavy dressings of organic matter and many experimental evidences are available on the beneficial effects of organic matter either alone or in combination with inorganic fertilizers on the growth and productivity of turmeric.
  • Organic manures contain all the essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, boron, zinc, copper, manganese and iron which are necessary for increasing the yield and quality of the turmeric rhizome.
  • Usually large quantities (25 t/ha) of organic manures in the form of FYM, oil cakes and green leaves (as mulch) are applied in different turmeric growing states.
  • An increase of over 37 per cent in fresh rhizome yield was recorded over control (No FYM) by the application of 25 t FYM/ha.
  • Application of tank silt and sheep penning are also practiced in some areas of Tamil Nadu.
  • Poultry manure is concentrated source of nitrogen and phosphorus and it can be effectively utilized along with inorganic fertilizers to boost yield of turmeric. The highest fresh rhizome yield of turmeric (34.37 t/ha) was recorded in the treatment of NPK + Poultry manure as against the least yield of 25.72 t/ha in NPK alone treatment.

Functions of Major Nutrients

  • Nitrogen is essential for boosting up vegetative growth and thereby yield.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for root development while K is involved in transportation of carbohydrates to rhizomes.
  • In addition, K also improves curcumin content.
  • There was little response to incremental doses of K upto 180 kg/ha in respect of morphological as well as rhizome characters of turmeric.

Response to Nitrogen

  • Nitrogen and the variety grown have a significant effect on the yield and yield supporting characters in turmeric.
  • N application significantly improved plant height, number of tillers per clump and yield.
  • In Tamil Nadu, increase in N levels upto 120 kg N/ha significantly increased the fresh rhizomes yield (41 t/ha). The yield increase was 62 per cent at 120 kg N/ha.
  • Application of 140 kg N/ha in the form of Urea in five split doses viz. at planting, 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAP along with 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O recorded yield of 22.9 t/ha which was 56.9 per cent higher than that of the plots which received no application of N.

Response to Phosphorus

  • A good supply of phosphorus has been associated historically with increased root growth of crops.
  • Plant roots proliferate extensively in the areas of phosphate treated soils.
  • Response of applied phosphorus has been reported upto 175 kg/ha with the combination of other nutrients.

Response to Potassium

  • Potassium along with N and P plays a major role in growth and yield, as it is involved in assimilation, transport and storage tissue development.
  • Application of K significantly increased plant height, tiller number, number of leaves, and number of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes in turmeric.
  • Application of K at 90 kg/ha in four splits (basal, 60, 90 and 120 DAP) recorded higher yield of rhizomes (30 t/ha) with an increased curcumin content of 4.06 per cent.

Response to Micro Nutrients

Iron

  • Iron deficiency has been observed in turmeric grown in calcareous or alkaline soils.
  • The presence of high amounts of phosphate may also induce this condition in acid soils.
  • The deficiency of iron shows up first in the young leaves of plants, which develop interveinal chlorosis and it progresses rapidly over the entire leaf. In severe cases, the leaves turn completely white.
  • Soil application of FeSO4 at 30 kg/ha recorded the highest yield of rhizomes (24 per cent more than control) followed by foliar spray of FeSO4 (2.5 kg/ha) during 3rd, 4th and 5th months which recorded an yield of 23 t/ha of fresh rhizomes at Bhavanisagar.

Zinc

  • Zinc deficiency in turmeric can be identified by the occurrence of light green yellow or white areas between veins of leaves, particularly the older ones. Other symptoms include small, narrow thickened leaves, early loss of foliage and stunted growth.
  • Application of ZnSO4 at 15 kg/ha increased the rhizome yield by 15 per cent over control.
  • The highest yield of 21.4 t/ha of rhizomes was obtained with combined application of 50 kg each of FeSO4 and ZnSO4 per ha against 12.4 t/ha recorded in the control plots followed by FeSO4 (5 kg/ha) + ZnSO4 (2.5 kg/ha) foliar sprays at three stages ie at 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of crop growth.

Estimating Requirements

  • The nutrient requirement of any crop is estimated based on the uptake of nutrients.

Uptake of nutrients

  • Uptake of nutrients by turmeric is influenced by many factors such as variety, type of planting material used, soil fertility level and cropping systems.
  • Generally as the dry matter production increases, the uptake also increases and the phase of active vegetative growth is also the period during which maximum uptake of nutrients takes place.
  • It has been observed that the uptake of nutrients was higher up to third month for K, up to fourth month for N and up to fifth month for P with subsequent decrease.
  • The crop attains maximum vegetative growth during the fourth and fifth months suggesting the need for earlier application of N, P and K for increasing plant growth.
  • Turmeric is a heavy feeder of nutrients as seen from the data on nutrient uptake.

Uptake of nutrients by turmeric at harvest (kg/ha)

Location /Soil type

Nutrients

N

P2O5

K2O

Bhavanisagar - Sandy loam

166

37

285

Coimbatore - Clayey loam

187

39

327

  • The use of mother rhizomes as planting material resulted in higher uptake of N, P and K compared to the use of either primary or secondary rhizomes.
  • Of all the nutrients, the uptake of potassium was the highest, followed by nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus.
  • Studies conducted identified third leaf from the top as the diagnostic leaf for N, P and K status of the crop.
  • Regarding the optimum age of plant for sampling, the period between 90 and 120 days after planting has been suggested.

Bio fertilizers

  • Biofertilizers are the inoculum of microbial strains capable of enhancing the availability of certain plant nutrients.
  • There are two types of organisms viz., nitrogen fixing, as well as phosphorus mobilising and solubilising organisms.

Nitrogen fixing microorganisms

  • Certain microorganisms can fix and assimilate nitrogen in plants. They utilize molecular nitrogen and reduce it to ammonia. The potential nitrogen fixer is Azospirillum
  • Azospirillum is an associative microaerophilic diazotroph isolated from the root and above ground parts of a variety of crop plants.
  • Azospirillum species are widely distributed in tropical as well as in temperate soils and have proved to be beneficial because of their broad host range.
  • When all the conditions required for biological nitrogen fixation are present, Azospirillum cells are the most efficient nitrogen fixers in the field.
  • Substantial amounts of nitrogen can be fixed by Azospirillum in the rhizosphere. Mainly the nitrogen fixing ability contributes for high productivity and biomass.
  • Use of microbial inoculant, Azospirillum increased the yield of turmeric rhizome by 10 per cent.
  • Soil application of Azospirillum at 15 kg/ha registered higher yield than slurry application.

Phosphorus mobilizing and solubilizing microorganisms

  • Phosphorus mobilization by VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) fungal association.
  • Plant roots provide an ecological niche for many of the microorganisms around soil.
  • Mycorrhizal association performs the functions of root hairs.
  • The presence of vesicles and arbuscules is the diagnostic criteria for identifying VAM fungus in a root,
  • VAM fungi are partly inside the host and partly outside the host.
  • VAM fungi improve phosphorus uptake by making the immobile PO4 into mobile PO4.

Phosphorus solubilisation by phosphobacteria

  • Phosphate solubilising microorganisms play a major role in the solubilization and uptake of native and applied soil phosphorus
  • They bring about changes in soil micro environment by producing chelating agents and organic acids.
  • They also produce the phosphatase enzyme which causes the solubilization of phosphorus.
  • In turmeric, application of phosphobactria at 10 kg/ha at one month after planting is recommended.

Method of using biofertilizers

  • The microbial inoculants viz., Azospirillum and phosphobacteria available in lignite based carrier in poly bag containing 200 g are pretreated with 10 kg FYM moistened to 60% and then inoculated at ambient temperature, covered with moist gunny bags for a period of 72 hours.
  • After the inoculation period, the inoculated FYM is to be applied in furrows.
  • Biofertilizers should not be mixed with inorganic fertilizers
  • Irrigation should be ensured after application.

Sources of Nitrogen

Organic sources

Material

Nitrogen (N) (per cent)

Farm yard manure

0.5 - 1.5

Compost (Urban)

1.0 - 2.0

Compost (Rural)

0.5 - 0.8

Green manures

0.5 - 0.7

Non-edible cakes

Castor cake

5.5 - 5.8

Cotton seedcake (undecorticated)

3.9 - 4.0

Mahua cake

2.5 - 2.6

Karanje cake

3.9 - 4.0

Neem cake

5.2 - 5.3

Safflower cake (undecorticated)

4.8 - 4.9

Inorganic fertilizers

Name of the fertilizer

N%

Urea

44.0 - 46.0

Ammonium sulphate

19.9 - 21.0

Calcium Ammonium nitrate

26.0

Ammonium chloride

26.0

Calcium nitrate

13.0 - 15.0

Sodium nitrate

16.0

Calcium cyanamid

21.0

Anhydrous ammonium

82.0

Ammonium nitrate

32.0 - 35.0

 

Compound fertilizers

N (%)

P2O5 (%)

K2O (%)

Diammonium phosphate

18

46

0

Urea Ammonium phosphate

28

28

0

Ammonium phosphate (Gromor)

20

20

0

NPK (Complex fertilizers)

10

26

26

 

17

17

17

 

15

15

15

 

19

19

19

 

14

35

14

 

Sources of Phosphorus Organic sources

Material

Phosphate P2O5 (%)

Farm yard manure

0.4 - 0.8

Compost (Urban)

1.0

Compost (Rural)

0.3 - 0.6

Green manures

0.1 - 0.2

Non-edible cakes

Castor cake

1.8 - 1.9

Cotton seedcake (undecorticated)

1.8 - 1.9

Mahua cake

0.8 -0.9

Karanje cake

0.9 - 1.0

Neem cake

1.0

Safflower cake (undecorticated)

1.4 - 1.5

Inorganic fertilizers

Phosphatic fertilizers

P2O5 (%)

Super phosphate (single)

16.0 - 20.0

Super phosphate (double)

30.0 - 35.0

Super phosphate (Triple)

45.0 - 50.0

Basic slag

3.0 - 8.0

Mussori

23.0 - 24.0

Purulia

23.0

 

Compound fertilizers

N (%)

P2O5 (%)

K2O (%)

Diammonium phosphate (SPIC)

18

46

0

Urea Ammonium phosphate

28

28

0

Ammonium phosphate (Gromor)

20

20

0

NPK (Complex fertilizers)

10

26

26

 

17

17

17

 

15

15

15

 

19

19

19

 

14

35

14

 

Sources of Potassium

Organic sources

Material

Potash (K2O) (per cent)

Farm yard manure

0.5 - 1.0

Compost (Urban)

1.5

Compost (Rural)

0.7 - 1.0

Green manures

0.6 - 0.8

Non-edible cakes

Castor cake

1.0 - 1.1

Cotton seedcake (undecorticated)

1.6 - 1.7

Mahua cake

1.8 - 1.9

Karanje cake

1.3 - 1.4

Neem cake

1.4 - 1.5

Safflower cake (undecorticated)

1.2 - 1.3

Inorganic fertilizers

Potassic fertilizers

K2O (%)

Muriate of potash (KCl)

50.0 - 60.0

Potassium sulphate

48.0 - 52.0

Potassium phosphate

30.0 - 50.0

 

 

Nutrient Management

Role of Nutrients in The Plant Growth

  • Sixteen nutrient elements are recognised as being essential to all plants for their normal growth and development.

Essential nutrient elements and their source

Essential elements used in relatively large amounts

Essential elements used in relatively small amounts

Mostly from air and water

From soils

Macronutrients

Secondary nutrients

Micronutrients

Carbon

Nitrogen

Calcium

Iron

Hydrogen

Phosphorus

Magnesium

Manganese

Oxygen

Potassium

Sulphur

Boron

 

 

 

Molybdenum

 

 

 

Copper

 

 

 

Zinc

 

 

 

Cobalt

  • The nutrients are called macro, secondary and micronutrients based only on the quantity required by the plant for its normal growth and not based on their essentiality.
  • The plant cannot complete its life cycle in the absence of even any one of these 16 elements.

Macronutrients

Nitrogen (N)

  • Important constituent of chlorophyll, protoplasm, proline and nucleic acid
  • Increases growth and development of all living tissues
  • Imparts dark green colour to plants.

Phosphorus (P)

  • A constituent of phosphatids like nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids and co-enzymes
  • Constituent of certain amino acids
  • Necessary for cell division and root development,
  • Necessary for meristematic growth, seed and fruit development and stimulates flowering.

Potassium (K)

  • An activator of enzymes involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Helps in carbohydrate translocation, synthesis of protein, stomatal opening and pH control
  • Helps to resist cold and other adverse condition and disease
  • It regulates water conditions within the plant cell and thus reduces tendency to wilt and helps in better utilization of water.
  • It counteracts the injurious effects of nitrogen in plants.

Secondary nutrients

Calcium (Ca)

  • Constituents of cell and necessary for normal mitosis
  • Maintenance of chromosome structure
  • Activator of enzymes and helps in translocation of carbohydrates
  • Acts as a detoxifying agent by neutralizing organic acids in plants.

Magnesium (Mg)

  • Key element in chlorophyll without which photosynthesis would not occur.
  • Promotes uptake and translocation of phosphorus
  • Helps in movement of sugars within plants.

Sulphur (S)

  • Constituent of sulphur - bearing amino acids
  • Helps in stabilizing protein structure
  • Aids in the synthesis of oils and formation of chlorophyll.

Micronutrients

Zinc (Zn)

  • Involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormone, indole acetic acid (IAA)
  • Plays a role in nucleic acid and protein synthesis
  • Helps in the utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen in plants

Copper (Cu)

  • Promotes formation of vitamin A in plants.
  • Components of many enzymes

Iron (Fe)

  • Necessary for the synthesis and maintenance of chlorophyll in plants
  • Essential component of many enzymes
  • Plays as essential role in nucleic acid metabolism

Manganese (Mn)

  • Acts as catalyst in several important enzymatic and physiological reactions in plants
  • Involved in the oxidation of carbohydrate to CO2 and H2O
  • Involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll

Boron (B)

  • Essential for protein synthesis.
  • Changes the activities of certain enzymes
  • Facilitates carbohydrate transport
  • Associated with the uptake of calcium and its utilisation by plants
  • Regulates potassium/calcium ratio in plants.

Molybdenum (Mo)

  • Associated with nitrogen utilisation and in nitrogen fixation
  • Constituent of nitrate reductase and nitrogenase
  • Required by rhizobia for nitrogen fixation.
           

Water Management

Importance of water

  • Water is a prime resource which fulfils a number of significant functions.
  • Unlike most other natural resources, water does not have substitute in its main uses.
  • It can be used more or less lavishly or efficiently, but it can not be replaced.
  • It is indispensable, finite and vulnerable resource.
  • Virtually no activity in life is possible in the absence of water.

Irrigation

  • Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil for the purpose of crop production.
  • Irrigation water is supplied to supplement the water available from rainfall and for the contribution to soil moisture from ground water.
  • In many areas of the world, the amount and timings of rainfall are not adequate to meet the moisture requirement of crops and so irrigation is essential to raise crops necessary to the needs of food, fibre, etc.
  • The increasing need for crop production for the growing population is causing the rapid expansion of irrigation throughout the world.
  • Water, being a limited resource, its efficient use is basic to the survival of the ever increasing population of the world.

Rainfall distribution of Tamil Nadu

Season

Distribution of normal annual rainfall (cm)

Winter (Jan - Feb)

6

Summer (March - May)

12

South West Monsoon (June - Sept.)

27

North East Monsoon (Oct. - Dec.)

53

Total

98

  • Turmeric is grown as rainfed crop in high rainfall areas.
  • Irrigation is required, if there is moisture stress due to lack of adequate rainfall.
  • It Tamil Nadu, Erode, Coimbatore, Salem, Namakkal and Dharmapuri are the major turmeric growing districts, which come under Western and North Western Agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu with annual rainfall of 718 mm and 875 mm respectively.
  • In these zones, well irrigation is high (78 per cent in North Western zones and 59 per cent in Western zones).
  • As turmeric requires assured water supply almost throughout the year, it is mainly grown in lift irrigated areas in Tamil Nadu.
  • The area as well as productivity of turmeric declines during water scarcity period, since turmeric requires frequent irrigations during the cropping period.
  • Till sprouting is completed, light irrigations at weekly intervals are essential.
  • Since it is very susceptible to water logging, excess water during rainy season should be drained out, otherwise it may cause rhizome rot.
  • Depending on the type of soil and climatic conditions, irrigated crop requires 15 to 20 irrigations in medium heavy soils and 35 to 40 in light textured red soils.
  • Moisture stress affects the growth and development of the plant especially during the rhizome bulking stage.

Schedule of irrigation to turmeric crop

Crop growth phase

Duration (months)

Soil type

Number of irrigations

Interval (days)

Germination

1

Heavy

3

8-10

 

 

Light

4

7-8

Moderate vegetative growth

1 1/2

Heavy

4

10 - 12

 

Light

6

7-8

Active vegetative growth

2 1/2

Heavy Light

6

10 -15

 

Light

10

7-8

Slow vegetative growth

2

Heavy

4

10 - 15

 

Light

8

7-8

Approaching senescence

2

Heavy

4

10 - 15 7-8

 

Light

8

7-8

  • In addition to well irrigation, river and tank irrigations are also followed wherever possible.

Drip irrigation

  • Drip irrigation daily at 40 per cent surface irrigation with 75 per cent recommended level of nitrogen through fertigation was found to be the most economical treatment wherein 60 per cent of irrigation water and 25 per cent nitrogen could be saved besides an yield increase of 25 per cent compared to the conventional method of irrigation.
  • Drip irrigation, not only ensures the highest economy in water use owing to reduced evaporation and seepage losses, but also provides ideal moisture regime for higher yield in turmeric.

Weed Management

  • Weeds have become a constant menace to all cultivated crops including turmeric.
  • India, being tropical country, high temperature and humidity pave way for luxuriant growth of weeds.
  • Weeds compete with crop plants for soil moisture, nutrients, light and space.
  • Weed competition in early stage of crop growth virtually affects the yield of rhizome.

Losses

  • Weeds cause greater losses of crops than either insect pests and plant diseases.
  • They cause 10 to 15 per cent reduction in the yield of rhizomes.
  • They often suppress the growth of turmeric plants and at the same time encourage the growth of many pathogens and pests.

Weed flora in turmeric fields

Common name

Scientific name

Monocotyledonous weeds

Grasses

 

Kuthiraivali

Echinochola crusgalli

Varsanum pul

Echinochloa colonum

Sedges

 

Korai

Cyperus sp.

Dicotyledonous weeds

Broad leaved

 

Saranai

Trianthema postulacastrum

Karisalanganni

Eclipta alba

Ammanpacharisi

Euphorbia hirta

Keelanelli

Phyllanthus niruri

  • Other garden land weeds may also occur in addition to the above weeds.

Management

Cultural

  • Remove the stubbles and roots of weeds while preparing the land.
  • Use well decomposed manure to avoid dissemination of weeds.
  • Clean the implements before use.
  • Keep the channels free of weeds.
  • Mulch with leaves and straw applied just after planting for controlling weeds and enhancing earliness in sprouting of turmeric.

Mechanical

  • Removal of weeds by hand hoe, hand weeder, cultivator, harrows, etc.

Chemical

  • The chemical method of destroying weeds involves the prevention of weed growth by using herbicide or destroying the weeds already grown.
  • According to the method of treatment, the herbicides are mainly classified into two types viz., Pre-emergence (soil treatment) and post emergence (stem and leaf treatment).
  • In maize + turmeric intercropping system, simazine 50% WP or atrazine 50% WP at 2 kg/ha effectively controlled weed growth.
  • The highest gross returns were obtained with fluchloralin 45 EC at 2 lit/ha + hand weeding followed by atrazine 50% WP at 2kg/ha + hand weeding in turmeric + maize intercropping system.
  • Integrated weed management of pre-emergence application of herbicide followed by one manual weeding was economical than farmers practice of two manual weedings.
  • For spraying herbicide, a special type of nozzle either deflector or fan type has to be used.
  • The herbicide has to be applied at the appropriate time at the recommended dose.
  • A total of 600-625 litres of spray fluid is to be used per hectare.
  • Separate sprayer should be used for spraying herbicides. The sprayers used for herbicides spray should not be used for spraying insecticide or fungicide.
  • Walking in the field after spraying herbicide should be avoided, because in walked space because of removal of herbicide, weed control will be reduced.

 

 
 
 

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