TURMERIC

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VARIETIES
  • More than 50 cultivars of C. domestica and C.aromatica are known and these are known by trade names based on the appearance, rhizome thickness, colour intensity, aroma and hardness of the core and duration.

Cultivars of Tamil Nadu

  • In Tamil Nadu, two cultivars viz., Erode local and Salem local have been cultivated so far in addition to local cultivar viz., Bhavani.

Erode local

  • It is one of the popular cultivars of Tamil Nadu with good market acceptability.
  • Plants are vigorous and tall with good yield potential (30-32 t/ha).
  • Fingers are short, slightly bent with a deep orange inner core, with a moderate curing percentage.
  • curcumin content is 3.9 per cent.

Salem local

  • It is another popular cultivar of Tamil Nadu.
  • The plants are vigorous and tall.
  • Rhizomes are bigger and the fingers are longer than in Erode local (4 cm)
  • Its yield potential is comparable with Erode local but rich in curcumin content (4.75 per cent) and moderate in curing percentage.

Turmeric varieties released from TNAU

  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) has released so far three turmeric varieties viz., CO 1, BSR1 and BSR 2 suitable for cultivation in Tamil Nadu.

Improved turmeric varieties of Tamil Nadu

Name

Duration

Fresh yield (t/ha)

Dry recovery %

Cur-cumin %

Oleo resin %

Ess-ential oil %

Average

Potential

CO.1

285 (L)

30.0

35.0

19.5

3.2

6.7

3.2

BSR 1

285 (L)

30.7

39.6

20.5

4.2

4.0

3.7

BSR. 2

245 (M)

32.7

43.2

20.0

3.8

-

-

Note : L : Long duration; M : Medium duration

CO 1

  • It is a vegetative mutant from Erode local turmeric, released in 1983.
  • Rhizomes are bigger sized and bright orange coloured and better than Erode local
  • Plants are robust, vigorous and taller (40 to 60 cm) with more leaves (25 to 32) and tiller production (3.7 to 5.0)
  • Suitable for drought and saline soils.

BSR 1

  • It is a selection from mutant population irradiated with X-ray (from Erode local) released in 1986.
  • Rhizomes are attractive with yellow fingers and closer internodes
  • Rhizomes contain higher curcumin content (4.2%) than CO 1 and Erode local
  • Suitable for water logged conditions

BSR 2

  • It is a mutant from Erode local type released in 1994.
  • The crop yields 32 t/ha in a shorter crop duration of 240-250 days
  • The plants are medium statured (85 cm), high yielding and resistant to scale insects.
  • It is suitable for Erode, Coimbatore, Salem, Dharmapuri, Trichy, Thanjavur, Vellore, Villupuram, Thiruvannamalai and Cuddalore districts.

Salient features of turmeric BSR 2 (BS 43)

  • The culture BS 43 (5402-1-1) is an 'X'-ray irradiated (10 kr) mutant of Erode local.
  • This selection proved its superiority in yield by recording 32,698 kg/ha compared to the standard variety BSR-1 (30, 381 kg/ha) accounting for 7.51 per cent increased yield.
  • Besides high yield, the plants have favourable attributes like medium stature (85 cm) with more number of tillers/plant (3.9).
  • It matures one to one and half months earlier (240-250 days) than the standard variety, BSR 1 (285-290 days).
  • This selection is resistant to scale insect, the percentage of incidence being only 2.02 as against 49.37 recorded by BSR 1 and 45.31 by CO 1.
  • Apart from raising as a pure crop, this selection can also be grown as inter crop in young plantations like coconut and arecanut.
  • At Bhavanisagar, turmeric was raised as an intercrop in the coconut plantation planted at a spacing of 7.5 x 7.5 m at a density of 180 palms/ha. The yield of turmeric recorded was 2015 kg/ha.

Description of BSR 2 in comparison with its parent Erode local

Characters

BSR 2

Erode local

Plant height (cm)

72.6 - 98.3

55.9 - 81.4

No. of leaves/plant

16.4 - 19.4

13.9 - 16.8

Number of tillers/plant

3.4 - 4.4

2.9 - 3.6

Weight of fresh rhizomes/plant (g)

690-890

550-720

Mean weight of mother rhizomes/plant (g)

160-210

140-155

Mean weight of primary rhizomes/plant(g)

410-480

290-330

Mean weight of secondary rhizomes (g)

160-210

120-135

Mean size of mother rhizomes

 

 

length (cm)

4.4 - 5.1

3.6 - 4.2

diameter cm)

2.6 - 3.1

2.1 - 2.3

Mean size of primary rhizomes

 

 

length (cm)

10.1 - 10.9

7.6 - 8.1

diameter (cm)

1.9 - 2.2

1.2 - 1.7

Mean size of secondary rhizomes

 

 

length (cm)

2.0 - 2.4

1.1 - 1.7

diameter (cm)

0.8 - 1.0

0.6 - 0.9

  • In addition to CO 1, BSR 1 and BSR 2, the turmeric varieties viz., Roma, Suroma, Swarna, Sudharshana, Suguna, Sugandham, Ranga, Rashmi, Rajendra Sonia, Krishna and Allepey finger turmeric are also recommended for cultivation in Tamil Nadu.

Popular cultivars grown in different states

State

Cultivars

Tamil Nadu

Erode, Salem

Andhra Pradesh

Kesari, Duvvur, Amruthapani, Kothapeta, Duggirala, Tekurpet, Mydukur, Armoor, Sugandham, Vontimittra, Nandyal, Ananigadda

Kerala

Alleppey, Mannuthy local

Assam

Shillong, Tall Karbi

Maharashtra

Rajapuri, Evaigon

Orissa

Dughi, Jobedi, Katigia

Uttar Pradesh

Gorakpur.

Classification

  • About 50 commercial types of turmeric are cultivated in India.
  • Barring 15 improved varieties, all others are land races, mostly from Andhra Pradesh or Orissa. They are classified into three types.

Type

Duration (months)

Yield potential (t/ha)

Dry recovery (%)

Nature of rhizomes

Examples

Short duration

Six

8 to 20

26 to 30

Long thick rhizomes with shiny skin and aroma and low curcumin content

GL, Puram, Kasturi, CA 69, Jobedi, Dughi, Dindigram, Katigia, Pakistan, G. Udayagiri and Amalapuram

Medium duration

Eight

14 to 35

18 to 20

Medium long and thick rhizomes with narrow constrictions

ACC 317, Kesari, Kothapetta, Gorakpur, Amruthapani, Panamalur, Rajapuri and Amalapuram

Long duration

Nine

15 to 17

20

Long stout, smooth and hard rhizomes with pale yellow colour

Armoor, Duggirala, C11-325, C11-327, Mydukur, Tekurpet, Avanigadda, Sugandham, Ethamukkala, etc.

Improved turmeric varieties of other states

Name

Duration

Fresh yield (t/ha)

Dry reco very %

Cur-cumin %

Oleo-resin %

Ess-ential oil %

Average

Potential

Suroma

253 (M)

20.0

44.9

26.0

9.3

13.1

4.2

Roma

250 (M)

20.7

40.0

31.0

9.3

13.2

4.2

Ranga

250 (M)

29.0

37.1

24.8

6.3

13.5

4.4

Rashmi

240 (M)

31.3

37.5

23.0

6.4

13.4

4.4

Krishna

240 (M)

9.2

11.8

16.4

2.8

3.8

2.0

Rajendra Sonia

225 (M)

24.8

-

18.0

8.4

-

5.0

Prathibha

225 (M)

39.1

-

18.5

6.2

16.2

6.2

Sugan- dham

210 (M)

15.0

20.0

23.3

3.1

11.0

2.7

Prabha

205 (M)

37.5

-

19.5

6.5

15.0

6.5

Suvarna

200 (M)

17.4

43.5

20.0

4.3

13.5

7.0

Suguna

190 (S)

29.3

60.3

12.0

7.3

13.5

6.0

Sudha-rsana

190 (S)

28.8

54.9

12.0

5.3

15.0

7.0

Note : S: Short duration; M : Medium duration

  • Roma and Suroma from Pottangi (Orissa), CO 1 and BSR 1 from Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) and Sugandham from Jagudan (Gujarat) have been released as high yielding varieties under the All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Improvement of Spices.

Varieties released by IISR

No

Variety
Source

Mean yield (fresh) t/ha

 

Crop duration (days)

Dry recovery (%)

Curcumin (%)

Oleoresin

(%)

Essential    Oil

(%)

1

Suvarna

IISR, Calicut

17.4

200

20.0

4.3

13.5

7.0

2

Suguna

''

29.3

190

12.0

7.3

13.5

6.0

3

Sudarsana

''

28.8

190

12.0

5.3

15.0

7.0

4

IISR Prabha

''

37.5

195

19.5

6.5

15.0

6.5

5

IISR Prathibha

''

39.1

188

18.5

6.2

16.2

6.2

6

Co-1

 

30.0

285

19.5

3.2

6.7

3.2

7

Krishna

 

9.2

240

16.4

2.8

3.8

2.0

8

Sugandham

 

15.0

210

23.3

3.1

11.0

2.7

9

BSR-1

 

30.7

285

20.5

4.2

4.0

3.7

10

Roma

 

20.7

250

31.0

9.3

13.2

4.2

11

Suroma

 

20.0

255

26.0

9.3

13.1

4.4

12

Rajendra Sonia

 

4.8

225

18.0

8.4

-

5.0

13

Ranga

 

29.0

250

24.8

6.3

13.5

4.4

14

Rasmi

 

31.3

240

23.0

6.4

13.4

4.4

 

 
 
 

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